The evidence for central nervous system dysfunction in fibromyalgia is clear: the ascending pain producing pathways are overly activated, while the descending pain inhibitory pathways are under-activated. This results is people with fibromyalgia experiencing pain where no injury or sign of damage exists.
Problems with the peripheral nervous system in the body also exist. The nerve fibers that carry pain signals to the brain are overly activated, and some of the small, unmyelinated nerves in the skin and the eyes that carry sensory information to the spinal cord and brain are damaged in some patients.
The question researchers have been grappling with is whether these damaged nerves are contributing to the pain in fibromyalgia or if they are some sort of side process. The small nerve fiber damage in fibromyalgia is occurring in two ways; first, the small nerve fibers are disappearing, and those that are left are smaller in diameter than usual. The second issue is unusual, and has led researchers to call the small nerve problems in fibromyalgia “small nerve pathology” instead of “small fiber neuropathy”.
The types of symptoms seen in FM may signal differences as well. People with small fiber neuropathy typically experience one kind of symptom while people with neuropathic pain experience another and people with large fiber neuropathy experience yet another kind of symptom.
Cornea nerve fiber quantification and construction of phenotypes in patients with fibromyalgia. Linda Oudejans1, Xuan He1, Marieke Niesters1, Albert Dahan1, Michael Brines2 & Monique van Velzen1. Scientific Reports | 6:23573 | DOI: 10.1038/srep23573
This study examined the small nerve fibers found in the cornea of the eye, and did extensive pain testing to determine if the small fiber loss in the eye was correlated with pain levels elsewhere.
Pain and Stimulus-Response Questionnaires
Pain questionnaires were also given that determined whether symptoms were associated with neuropathic pain (Pain Detect) or small nerve fiber pain (Small Nerve Fiber Screening List (SFNSL)).
Typical indications of neuropathic and small nerve fiber pain include burning and prickling pains (neuropathic) and indigestion, dry eyes, allodynia, tingling sensations, chest pain and others (SNF).
There was no control group: the corneal fiber results were compared to referenced norms.
Corneal Nerve Problems……Check!
The nerve fibers in the corneas of the fibromyalgia patients’ eyes were shorter than normal in 44% of the patients, and nerve fiber density and branching was reduced in 10% and 20% of the patients, respectively. All told, just over 50% of the FM patients displayed one or more indications of small fiber pathology.
Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST)
The QST testing involved exposing FM patients to things like cold, heat, pressure, and pin-pricks. The results indicated that many patients showed signs of allodynia or increased pain sensitivity in one or more tests. In particular, FM patients showed a marked sensitivity to pressure tests.
Allodynia and Increased Sensitivity to Pain (% experiencing) – these tests measured the response to a painful stimuli.
- Mechanical pain – 21%
- WInd-up (increased pain sensitivity as the duration of the pain stimulus increases) – 26%
- Pressure – 69%Sensitivity to Stimuli – these tests simply introduced a stimuli and then determined at which point FM patients noticed that stimuli. They found that a significant percentage of FM patients were less able to detect some stimuli than normal. This would make sense if they had fewer small nerves in their skin.